It calls to you. Your drawer of misfit toys and abandoned projects.

Every few months, I come back to the world of SoCs to see what’s new, but nothing ever really sticks around long enough for it to be considered useful enough to be permanent.

  • Smart mirrors
  • Twitter bots that shame you for not watering your plants
  • Video Game emulators
  • Home control devices
  • The occasional GPIO project to manipulate things in MeatSpace

The only exception is probably an ad-blocking DNS server, the Pi-Hole. But even that’s been graduated to running as distributed Linux Containers (LXC)

All that said, this project is also probably drawer-bound, but at least it was fun!

The ClusterHAT

The ClusterHAT sits atop a traditional Raspberry Pi, aka a HAT (Hardware Attached on Top. Yes, really). It has slots for you to insert 4 Raspberry Pi Zeros. When Gadget Mode is enabled, and the Zeros attach to the HAT, they become their own little subnet, branching off the main Pi.

Gadget Mode enables networking over USB

If comparing to a traditional network setup, we might think of the HAT like a network switch. When you combine the HAT with the modified Raspbian ISOs provided by 8086, in a couple of minutes you have a little cluster of Pis, ready to do your bidding.


The instruction over at are pretty clear, but in summary:

  • The main Pi has its own ISO, which comes in two flavors:
    • CNAT - Pi Zeros are served IPs from the main Pi in the 172.19.181/24 range
    • CBRIDGE - All 5 Pis are on the same network as you
  • Pi Zeros get there own corresponding, numbered ISO
    • Pi #1 gets ISO P1, and is assigned
      • if using the CNAT image
    • Pi #2 gets ISO P2, and is assigned
    • and so on

You can netboot all of the Zeros from the main Pi’s, but keep in mind you’d be sharing a single sdcard between 5 operating systems. It’s cool to see, if you have the time, but it might not be an ideal long term solution. apt upgrade on 5 nodes took about an hour. YMMV since sdcards come in a variety of speeds.

Netboot instructions here

Once all the sdcards are flashed, (or netboot shares copied), make sure to touch /boot/ssh on each node to enable remote access.

Connecting to the Pis

Place your Zeros in the ClusterHat’s ports and attach the ClusterHat to the main Pi.

Boot up the main Pi, SSH in, and supply power to the Zeros with:

clusterctrl up p{1,2,3,4}

Let’s talk about the CNAT image. The Zeros aren’t directly accessible from your main LAN. Instead of SSHing to the main Pi, then SSHing again to each Zero, we can simplify the process by setting the main Pi, which is on your direct physical network, as an SSH ProxyJump.

In your ~/.ssh/config file, put in the following, with modifications for your hostnames and IPs, of course:

Host *
  ProxyJump hammond
  User Pi






You can then copy your ssh public key to each host with:

for name in {hammond,oneil,carter,tealc,danieljackson} ; do
  ssh-copy-id -i ~/.ssh/id_ed25519 "${name}"

Enter your passwords and you should now be set up for password-less ssh, which we’ll need later to continue installing Docker on each node with Ansible.

On each Pi, run through the menu at sudo raspi-config. Spend as much or as little time as you want here. I usually just go with:

  1. System Options
  • change password
  • change hostname
  1. Performance Options
  • reduce gpu memory to 16
  1. Advance Options
  • expand memory card

Docker Prep With Ansible

Raspberry Pis need to have some options enabled before containers are able to run.

Later, we’ll append to their /boot/cmdline.txt the following:

cgroup_memory=1 cgroup_enable=memory cgroup_enable=cpuset

This tells the kernel to allow the use of cgroups, or “control groups”. Docker containers are just a scoped set of process and resources on your computer. Containers were around long before Docker, which made the use of Linux Namespaces and CGroups more accessible.

A Small Tangent on Containers

Containers are logical units of Linux kernel features, distributed as tarballs, whose processes are anchored to namespaces and controlled by CGroups.

Why are Namespaces

To create a Namespace for a process, additional flags must be passed to process-creation syscalls. These additional flags can restrict what this process can see and what other processes can see about it

Other things you can namespace

  • Hostnames
  • Process IDs
  • Filesystems
  • IPC
  • Networking
  • User IDs

Why are CGroups

At its most basic? They allow you to control, audit, and limit how your system’s resources are accessed or used.

  • Resource limiting Groups can be set to not exceed a configured memory limit
  • Prioritization Some groups may get a larger share of CPU or disk I/O
  • Accounting Measures a group’s resource usage
  • Control Freezing groups of processes

What sorts of things can we control?

  • Memory: /sys/fs/cgroup/memory
  • CPU/Cores /sys/fs/cgroup/cpu*
  • I/O /sys/fs/cgroup/blkio
  • Processes /sys/fs/cgroup/cgroup.procs
  • Devices /sys/fs/cgroup/devices.*

Automating Setup

If we’re interested in following along, all the playbooks can be found here:

First, we’ll need to setup our inventory file and name our groups. Below is one possible configuration.

# file: inventory.ini



If you’d like, create an ansible.cfg to save a couple keystrokes when calling ansible-playbook. Otherwise you’d need to specify an inventory file each time.

inventory = ./inventory.ini
interpreter_python = /usr/bin/python3

The following task ensures, in an idempotent way, that our kernel flags exist on all our Pis, and reboots the Pi if the flags weren’t already there.


- name: Enable container features
  become: true
  register: containers_enabled
    path: /boot/cmdline.txt
    regexp: '^([\w](?!.*\b{{ item }}\b).*)$'
    replace: '\1 {{ item }}'
  - "cgroup_enable=cpuset"
  - "cgroup_memory=1"
  - "cgroup_enable=memory"

- name: Reboot after enabling containers
  become: true
  when: containers_enabled.changed

Here we ensure all necessary packages, GPG keys, and repos are present before installing docker-ce


- name: Install Docker Prereqs
  become: true
    package: "{{ packages }}"
    state: present

- name: Add Docker GPG apt Key
  become: true
    url: "{{ gpg_key_url }}"
    state: present
    keyring: "{{ gpg_key_out }}"

- name: Add Docker Repository
  become: true
    repo: "deb [arch={{arch}} signed-by={{ gpg_key_out }}] {{ repo_url }}  {{ release }} stable"
    state: present

- name: Update apt and install docker-ce
  become: true
    package: "{{ docker_packages }}"
    state: latest
    update_cache: yes

An example of a variable file that needs to exist for the code above to work looks like:

# docker installation prerequisites
  - apt-transport-https
  - ca-certificates
  - curl
  - gnupg
  - lsb-release

# docker repo gpg key location

# outfile on local disk for docker repo gpg key
gpg_key_out: /usr/share/keyrings/docker-archive-keyring.gpg

# components for genreating the `deb` line being added to `/etc/apt/sources.list.d`
release: buster
arch: armhf

# installing docker
  - docker-ce 
  - docker-ce-cli 

Folder Structure

All of the tasks can live in a single playbook, we don’t need to over complicate things and use the folder hierarchy that Ansible Docs recommend for managing big fleets.

But we’re gonna anyways.

├── ansible.cfg
├── clusterctrl.yml
├── inventory.list
├── roles
│   ├── clusterctrl
│   │   ├── tasks
│   │   │   ├── main.yml
│   │   │   ├── apt_upgrade.yml
│   │   │   ├── ensure_aptitude.yml
│   │   │   ├── enable_containers.yml
│   │   │   ├── install_docker.yml
│   │   │   ├── docker_group_add.yml
│   │   │   └── swarm_init.yml
│   │   ├── vars
│   │   │   └── main.yml

Both simple and hierarchical methods are available here.

Why even talk about the folder structure then?
Porque no los dos?

Some may already have an Ansible repo and most likely have playbooks to manage updates, upgrades, and user management so it might not make sense to keep those tasks in a single-file play. Sharing it in this form makes it a bit easier to incorporate to existing Ansible setups. Also, if someone’s just starting their Ansible repo, perhaps this could serve as a starting skeleton

Back to the Pis

Once all Pis are up and playbooks intact, run:

ansible-playbook clusterctrl.yml

Docker Swarm Init

It is possible to both initialize and populate the Swarm with an Ansible play, but it requires some more setup and the use of plugins. We’ll meet in the middle though, and still use Ansible to run the commands remotely instead of ssh-ing to each. (although that is what’s happening in Ansible’s background anyway)

Because of our inventory.list config file in the current directory, on the main Pi, we can run:

ansible clusterctrl_server -a "docker swarm init --advertise-addr"

# If we didn't have that config file, we'd need to tell `ansibile` where to find our inventory file.
ansible -i /path/to/inventory clusterctrl_server -a "docker swarm init --advertise-addr"

The 172 IP is for the internal network interface that the Pi Zeros attach to.

We should get an output that includes a line that looks like this:

docker swarm join \
  --token SWMTKM-1-1y1rdnp7zjcj2vfw7mkhwzrwizqzixzffmoz4wew1brs0vlnh7-4axlaf1luquyxdgdq6gp3jalr \

Let’s run that command on each node like this:

ansible clusterctrl_nodes -a "docker swarm join --token SWMTKM-1-1y1rdnp7zjcj2vfw7mkhwzrwizqzixzffmoz4wew1brs0vlnh7-4axlaf1luquyxdgdq6gp3jalr"

Hopefully our output looks like:

❯❯ ansible clusterctrl_nodes -a "docker swarm join --token SWMTKN-1-5lyx690gdzra3jw0ijeuug2sifezuohhb51sk6qw00n8dulebq-23l27nw3oxjh2591shgyncp39"

carter | CHANGED | rc=0 >>
This node joined a swarm as a worker.
danieljackson | CHANGED | rc=0 >>
This node joined a swarm as a worker.
oneil | CHANGED | rc=0 >>
This node joined a swarm as a worker.
tealc | CHANGED | rc=0 >>
This node joined a swarm as a worker.

View your new Swarm Cluster with:

pi@hammond:~ $ docker node ls
o4i5q6yu4r3cc01t3nhcvv6nv *   hammond         Ready     Active         Leader           20.10.9
8f4k7jlwlfx60x0aadmjbn350     oneil           Ready     Active                          20.10.9
lpqd72inz9vooxgidyc14o7l6     carter          Ready     Active                          20.10.9
bhbwbtcyaw56oxzvb3hnawr5y     tealc           Ready     Active                          20.10.9
hxplragfdecau0x464s8jf5s9     danieljackson   Ready     Active                          20.10.9

Deploying Our First Workload

With our cluster ready to receive commands, let’s deploy code-server behind the dynamic reverse proxy, Traefik. We’ll configure Traefik to also assign valid TLS certs for our internal network, without having to expose anything to the broader internet by using the cloudflare DNS challenge functionality build into Traefik.

If you already own a domain name, create/use a cloudflare account and switch the DNS server in your registrar settings to cloudflare’s servers. Then create API tokens for just that DNS zone. We’ll plug it into Traefik so it knows to how to answer DNS challenges from Let’s Encrypt.

The service definition for Swarm looks like this.

version: "3.8"

    external: true

    external: true


    image: "traefik:latest"
      - cf_token
      - CF_DNS_API_TOKEN_FILE=/run/secrets/cf_token

    command: >

      - proxy

      - 80:80
      - 443:443

      - "/var/run/docker.sock:/var/run/docker.sock:ro"
      - "appdata:/config"


          - "node.role == manager"

        - "traefik.enable=true"
        - ""

        - "traefik.http.routers.api.entrypoints=websecure"
        - "traefik.http.routers.api.tls=true"
        - "traefik.http.routers.api.rule=Host(``)"
        - "traefik.http.routers.api.service=api@internal"
        - ""

      type: "cifs"
      o: "username=docker,password=swarm,vers=3.0,uid=1000,gid=1000,rw,umask=0177"
      device: "//YOUR_NAS_IP/configs/swarm/traefik"

A couple notes:

  • This config uses Swarm’s Secrets functionality. You create them with docker secret create, then reference them in your service definition.
    • You can also set the CF_DNS_API_TOKEN environment variable manually. The _FILE suffix on the enivronment variable above is a Swarm-ism so you can use files as string inputs
  • It uses a Volume, which is an SMB share elsewhere on the network, in order to store persistent data. This is where we’ll save the acme.json file that Traefik gets from cloudflare.
  • It also enables the Traefik dashboard and API. Useful for getting an overview of everything deployed through Traefik, but should be disabled if public facing or when not troubleshooting.
  • Traefik can use many different certificate resolvers, cloudflare is just one of many.
  • Since Traefik is the ingress for the whole cluster, it is scoped to only be deployed on the manager node (hammond, in this case)
  • Whenever you see external: true in Swarm docker-compose files, that means the resource already exists in the swarm. You’ll see that secrets and network both have this key/value. Before deploying this service, docker network create -d overlay proxy
  • Notice the umask in the volumes block. The eventual acme.json needs to have 0600 permissions in order for Traefik to read it in the future. It will complain about the permissions being overly-permissive and won’t use the certs when you browse to your services.

When ready, from your server node run:

docker stack deploy -c docker-compose.yml

This should spin up your Traefik container. Once you attempt to access it at for the first time, Traefik will conduct the challenge/response dance necessary to grant you certificates to and a wildcard cert at * (previously configured in the service definition above)

Finally, lets deploy code-server, which is VSCode in a browser. Handy for editing things from any computer, or remote dev on Linux.

version: "3"

    external: true


    image: linuxserver/code-server:arm32v7-latest
      - PUID=1000
      - PGID=1000
      - TZ=America/New_York
      - PASSWORD=password #optional
      - SUDO_PASSWORD=password #optional
      # - HASHED_PASSWORD= #optional
      # - SUDO_PASSWORD_HASH= #optional

      - proxy

      - "appdata:/config"

      - "8443:8443"


          - "node.role == manager"
        - "traefik.enable=true"
        - ""

        - "traefik.http.routers.code-rtr.entrypoints=websecure"
        - "traefik.http.routers.code-rtr.tls=true"
        - "traefik.http.routers.code-rtr.rule=Host(``)"
        - "traefik.http.routers.code-rtr.service=code-svc"
        - ""

      type: "cifs"
      o: "username=docker,password=swarm,vers=3.0,uid=1000,gid=1000,rw"
      device: "//YOUR_NAS_IP/configs/swarm/code"


  • We also scope this to the swarm manager because code-server doesn’t run on armhfV6 (which is what my Pi Zeros are). Given compatible architectures, you can remove this constraint and have many replicas of code-server in order to achieve redundancy.

Upon first visit to, you’ll be granted TLS certs for that domain in the background before finally loading:


Feel free to stuff your cluster back in your drawer and GO OUTSIDE!